The Ikarus 60 trolleybus,
articulated trolleybuses and trailers

The T230 IK-60 type trolleybus in the Városliget (City Park), in the '50s.

General data:

articulated >>
9400 mm
16500 mm
15000 mm
6800 mm
2500 mm
2500 mm
2500 mm
2500 mm
 height (without collector)
2850 mm
2900 mm
2900 mm
2975 mm
DK 202/A
86 kW
 DK 202/A
86 kW
DK 202/A
86 kW
 axle distance
5000 mm
5000 mm
5750 mm
1400 mm
5000 mm
5800 mm
4150 mm
 seats / total load (7 pers./m2)
22/75 pers.
39/156 pers.
36/128 pers.
26/52 pers.
8150 kg
14900 kg
13500 kg
3875 kg

Solo trolleybuses

As from the beginning of the '50s the Sowiet Union didn't have the industrial capacity to export trolleybuses, the Ikarus factory started to produce trolleybuses locally. By the time the autobus IK-60 was in mass production, so using the plans the factory made 157 IK-60T trolleybuses between 1952-56. 

On the right picture is the prototype in its half finished state. A few interesting things are noticeable: the resistors behind the missing radiator and in front of it the inserted tram shield. Also the steel collectors with coal insert and the signalling waving arms (later changed to index lamps) are visible, which were used at the time. What are missing are the mirrors (without which today no one would drive a bus - though if so many black coated men (secret police?) would be behind you in the '50s' Hungary, probably you wouldn't make any complaint...).

Erzsébet királyné útja
The trial run of possibly T200, at Erzsébet királyné útja (street) terminus.
The electric equippment of the trolleybuses were similar to the russian MTB-82 series; in fact these parts were produced from the original plans at Klement Gottwald Electric Factory (later Ganz Electric Factory). 

In the first IK-60T trolleybus (T200) were still Sowiet made parts from the stockpile of FVV (Capitol Tramways). The official muster of this vehicle was on 3rd April, the official licence was released on 5th August 1952. Until 30th October seven further trolleybuses were ready (T201-T207): here already Hungarian motors but Sowiet controllers were mounted (there are discrepancies in the numbers and dates). From 1953 the trolleybuses were completely Hungarian made.

The T200-as in its new state, again at the same terminus.
Statistics of the new trolleybuses:
new trolleybuses (pieces)
In the revolution of 1956 two IK-60T trolleybuses were damaged beyond the possibility of repairation. These two were the T320 and T354, that were barely one year old. 

The construction of IK-60 was though quite massive. For example it was at this time usual, that the buses and trolleybuses were pushing each other without a risk of any serious damage. In the '70s the buses of line 9 were giving a saving kick to the trolleybuses of line 74, that often stuck in the extra long insualtion of the tram crossings at Kálvin tér (square). On the other hand the trolleybuses were pushing the the FAÜ (Capitol Autobus Service)-articulated buses at the stops, since the buses' motors sometimes stalled. (From the stories of the drivers, after a while there was no need to demand: if a bus was waiting too long with closed doors in the stop, the trolleybus automaticly started to push it.) And furthermore it happened not once, that a broken down trolleybus was pushed by an other one from the city centre to the depot at Pongrác út (street).

The damaged T354 trolleybus in the fights of 1956.
In 1960 started the service of trolleybuses with trailers. For this reason many cars were equipped with hauling device, with strengthening also the rear of the chassis. Alltogether 58 solo cars became suitlable to pull a trailer (interesting is, that 59 trailer were in service at this time). In 1962 the numbers of the traction trolleybuses (300 series) were separated from the rest of solo cars (200 series). With this renumbering the letter T is disappeared. 

On the right picture it is to be noticed, that the trolleybuses of the FVV were painted and not sprinkled (as the buses). The employees made a good job: the polish was spotless of the repainted cars. Also the dark red livery was continued in the rear to the top of the trolleybuses from the '60s - with painting the roof red too.

In 1961 started the rebuilding of the IK-60T trolleybuses to articulated vehicles: alltogether 53+1 cars were converted. This became the 400 series.

From the homepage of Zoltán László
The T243 (319 from 1962) traction trolleybus during its rebuilding at Pálffy workshop.
On the rear is written "Drive without accidents!".
Inside the trolleybuses were seats in 2+1 row. After 1958 the guided flow of passenger was introduced, at the rear door was the entry, with this a conductor seat was placed near there. This system lasted until 1966. 

The lights inside were operating from the line voltage (550 V), there were bulbs coupled in series. On insulated tracks (e.g. at tram crossings) supplementary lights were operating near the doors from accumulator. 

The doors were automatic operated by the driver with high pressure air.

Inside IK-60T, the rear door and the conductor's seat.
The driver's cabin was separated by a dark wall with three assymetric windows (on the left between two windows was a hole). There was no passage between the drivers cabin and the room, the driver could get on through a door on the left. 

On the trolleybus the right door was missing in the front (the buses had one) - since here was the place of the electric equippment in boxes. On the picture one can spot the fuse switch too above the driver's seat.

The driver's cabin of the IK-60T trolleybus
The trolleybus was electrically similar construction as the type MTB-82. They had direct controller on the accelerator and the brake, which pedals were on the right and left of the steering wheel. So the driving technique was similar: with the accelerator could the driver increase the speed until 20 km/h in 8 cascade, then till 50-60 km/h with the 3 shunt-cascades. With taking back the the accelerator pedal to the 8th position it was possible to brake and recuperate, which was automatically changing to rheostatic brake when the network had no capacity to the recuperation. The brake pedal had 3 cascades of rheostatic brake, and then the air-pressure brake.

Naturally the recuperative brake (wich was regulated with the accelerator) had used the red brake lights at the end. But the operating relay was sometimes not well adjusted: so the brake signals were lit also during the accelerations.

The trolleybus had only a low-capacity accumulator, that was charged by a dynamo on the axle of the motor. The compressor had its separate motor (regulated by a pressure-switch). A difference was to the MTBs, that the IK-60T trolleybuses had windscreen wiper operated by a small motor. 

There was no servo for the steering on these trolleybuses, so the steering opressed the driver physically. While the car was standing, the steering wheel was impossible to turn. With cautios driving this was avoidable: the proof is that even ladies were able to drive the IK-60T type. The car was able to turn in 8 meters of radius, which is quite good comparing to e.g. the 11 meters of IK-260 and ZIU types.

The 269 (ex T333) in Bethlen Gábor utca (street). 
Notice the different mirrors on both sides.
The scrapping of the solo IK-60T trolleybuses was between 1967 and 1975. 
scrapped vehicles (pieces)

The last years these trolleybuses were running on line 74, until the Baross utca (street) line was closed in 1973. The very last 6 solo cars were serving 75/A (Thököly út (street) - Népliget (Common Park)). Some of the trolleybuses were converted into a mobile shack used by the building industry. 

The 259 (ex T323) trolleybus (that was made in 1955) is nowdays at Pongrác depot, later it is supposed to be rebuilt for exhibition.

Tibor Tildy
The 257 (ex T319) at Horváth Mihály tér (square), at line 74 with the BKV (Budapest Traffic Company) sign.
Trolleybus T254 at Dózsa György út (street) in the beginning of the '60s. 
This trolleybus became 232 in 1962, soon it was rebuilt as an articulated car 440.
Car 322 (ex T252) at Állatkerti körút, in the beginning of the '70s.
Sándor Ambrus
There is not much information about this trolleybus: a scrapped IK-60T is used in an experiment with auxiliary diesel-aggregate. Maybe this was conducted in the VKI (Research Institute of Electric Industry).
 Not one vehicles became a mobile shack, so it is possible, that some of them are still exist. 
On the picture: two scrapped solo trolleybuses. 
Zoltán Gábor Németh
Dávid Vitézy
A wreck of an IK-60T trolleybus is currently at Nagymaros, near the railway station. The place of the collectors on the roofs is still visible..
The 259 (T323 till 1962) IK-60T trolleybus in 2001.
This wreck is guarded at Pongrác út (street) depot, for later renovation. But right now it is in a very depressing condition.

Traction trolleybuses and trailers

Because of the increasing traffic, in 1954 the FAÜ (Capitol Autobus Service) introduced the trailers with traction autobuses. The FVV (Capitol Tramways) started the trailer service at the trolleybus-servce only later: the first series of trailers - made by ÁMG (General Mechanical Machine Factory in Székesfehérvár) - came in 1960. Until 1961, the trailers obtained the numbers TP000-TP054.
new trailers (pieces)

From 1st June, 1962 the trailers were in the number group starting from 900. There was alltogether 59 trailers in the the FVV's vehicle-park, amongst them the 921-940 were supplied brand new, the rest was overtaken from FAÜ.

Hungária körút
Trailer on the Hungária körút (boulevard) around 1960.
It is hard to read, but this trailer has possibly the number TP0xx.
The 59 trailers were not completely identical: there were cars, that had a dashboard familiar to the IK-620 series of autobuses (though its main sizes were similar to IK-60). Possibly this series were the 20 new trailers. 

The trailers had normally steered first axle, which was driven by the hauling gear (so it was more complicated than todays' lorries' trailers). There was a pressure air (break) and electric coupling between the traction trolleybus and the trailer. Originally these vehicles were planned to be hauled by autobuses, so it is not suprising, that the main voltage was not lead into the trailer, and in the trailer had lighting operating from accumulator (but not on the hauling part - so on the insulated sections e.g. tramway crossings the front part's lighting was off, while in the trailer's possibly stayed!).

The trailer 938. The dashboard of this car is similar to IK-620.
The door of the trailer was operated with pressure air, to the signals of the conductor (other sources say that the coductor operated the doors). In the trailer worked a sitting conductor, but this job ended on 4th October in 1964. Since 1st July 1966 the whole conductor service was replaced by the new ticket system in Budapest.

It wasn't an easy job to drive a hauling trolleybus. For the city centre lines they weren't suitable since the trailer was more inside than the front in turns. It was hard to brake too, since the trailer wasn't braking with rheostatic brake. The driver had to take care especially in slippery weather, in unguarded moments the trailer was able to overtake the hauling trolleybus. (Also the articulated buses are not safe from this behavior).

The trailer service was working almost without exception on the line 75 until 1968. After the trailers were scrapped.
scrapped trailers (pieces)

Many of them became the property of companies in the building industry. So even today it is possible to find some (in bad state): the 923 is awaiting its reconstruction for exhibition at the ex-Sallai workshops.

Trolibusz pótkocsi
TP 000
A new trailer, possibly in Székesfehérvár.
It is a little unusal, that there was a trailer, that had the number TP000. The picture was made at the stop Salgótarjáni út.
The T241 with its trailer at Hősök tere (square) around 1960-61.
The 331 (?) with trailer 931 crossing Thököly út (street) on Hungária körút (boulevard).
The coupling of the pressure air is possible to spot.
Ferenc Tóth
Tibor Tildy
The trailer 923, waiting for reconstruction.
This trailer used as a shack (on the contrary to the one at Sallai workshop) is in the series of round dashboard.

Articulated trolleybuses built from IK-60T

After the success of the FAÜ-articulated buses (the first of them was made in 1960) the IK-60T trolleybuses were also involved in the production of articulated vehicles. First a four-axle trolleybus was made at Sallai-workshop's "articulated string": this car obtained the number T400. The electric equippment was remounted at Pálffy workshop, its trial run around the workshop began on 8th May 1961.

Originally the motored part was T283, for the trailer another IK-60 autobus was used. Its rear twin-axles were steered, so there was no problem to manoeuvre in the city centre with the long vehicle. The trolleybus got the usual dark red-white livery with red roof, but the shape of the radiator was redesigned giving a new look to the front.

Its first public appearance was during the BNV (Budapest International Fair), shortly after it run at line 70/A (Nagymező utca (street) - Erzsébet királyné útja (street)) serving the visitors of the fair. The construction was not excellent, because the trolleybus was slow with its original 116,8 HP motor. It was scrapped relativly soon on 20th May 1967.

The T400 articulated trolleybus in its original state.
T400 on a color image, possibly at terminus Népliget.
Géza Gyulai
The room of T400 looking forward...
... and backwards.
The production of the series of articulated trolleybuses started in 1962, the trolleybus 401 was ready on 29th March 1962; the last 53rd car had its official exam on 4th January 1964. 
rebuilt cars (pieces)

The series of the articulated trolleybuses were made from IK-60T front and TR 5 autobuses as a trailer (the TR 5 type was a predecessor of the IK-60 series made in the end of the '40s) at Sallai workshop. The electric parts were yet again installed at Pálffy workshop - with the remount of the original equippment of IK-60T.

The articulated trolleybus 439 at Pongrác depot.
This car has possibly green coloration with cream-yellowish stripes.
It is worthwile to mention, that the main parameters of the TR 5's frame and body were slightly different from IK-60. The width and height of the windows were noticeably different. The width of the frame was less with 2 cm, and inside the roof had other shape in the frontal and the end part. The rear axle of this construction was again steered - so the trolleybus was able to turn in a radius of 11 m. As the weight on the rear axle was higher, here the vehicle was fitted with a larger and wider tyre.

The trailers of the 451 and 453 were converted from the military version of TR 5 (which only later became the property of FAÜ). These buses didn't have sank platform at the deck, so at the rear doors also were two steps. The two trolleybuses inherited this peculiar rear outfit.

The designers of the IK-60T did not content with the novelty of articulated trolleybuses, they invented new livery schemes too. Instead of the original dark red coloration, they began to use orange or green fund-colour with creme-yellowish or blue stripes. On the different line-groups were supposed to run different colour vehicles:

This is a new state of the first three axle articulated trolleybuses 401 at line 70 at Hermina út (street). 
Car 405 had also red-white outfit.
This car has the usual red-white livery, but the radiator has similar shape as T400.
The 408 was again an attraction of the BNV in 1962. This car with unique colours, it was light-green (different shade than the later green trolleybuses), with streamlined form of stripes. The picture was taken on Felvonulási tér (Marching square). 
Here is a color image of the car 408, serving route 70.
The shape of the radiator was changed, and the trolleybus obtained special wheel trims.
Nagy Zsolt Levente gyűjteménye
The 409 at the Felvonulási tér (Marching square), again at line 70.
This is still the original red-white coloration of the articulated trolleybus. 
The 409 again at Hermina út (street) at line 70.
Here the usual tone of the green livery is observable. Notice, that this car is supplied only with the original small round mirrors (comparing to the earlier cars' greater mirrors).
Baross tér(square)
Magazine Autó-Motor
The new 412 at Dvorák sétány (walkway) at line 70.
Here the orange is with blue stripes. Possibly this car was originally intended to run at line 73.
An articulated trolleybus from the later series at line 73 at the roundabout of Baross tér (square), in 1964. 
On this trolleybus the blue stripes are again different: the edge of the stripes are stressed. The later series kept the original radiator of IK-60T.
Veres Pálné utca(street)
Magazine Autó-Motor
Trolleybus 447 at line 78 in Király utca (street) at Nagykörút (Great Boulevard).
Possibly this trolleybus is a green one, since some sources claim, that from 438 the trolleybuses had green colour with cream-yellowish stripes. According to the picture from a certain point nobody cared about the colour of the car working on a certain line.
On the articulated trolleybuses were guided flow of passangers: the entry was only at the rear door - if it was possible to enter...
And a line 74 trolleybus at the corner of Veres Pálné utca (street) and Papnövelde utca (street), in around 1965.
Again this is supposed to be a green car (now in reality what colour is it?).
The FVV was unable to repair the many varieties of liveries, so not suprisingly from the middle of the '60s the original red-white coloration became again the standard outfit. Also with the repairs the unique radiators were changed back to the usual.
The articulated vehicles run first on the city centre lines, especially on line 70, 73, 74 and 78. From 1967-68 all the 53 cars became the fleet of line 75. 
The fleet was right enough for line 75, since by this time 43 cars ran here weekdays. This was an extremly frequent traffic: less than 2 minutes was between the trolleybuses. 

In around 1968 (at the time of the formation of BKV - Budapest Traffic Company) the usual coloration was dark red-white: with the white stripe lasting only until the driver's door.

László Lontai
The articulated trolleybus 435 at the corner of the Városliget (City Park).
The 400 series trolleybuses remained on line 75 until 1976. This was the time, when the new 100 series Ikarus-BKV IK-280T trolleybuses began to replace them (shortly then they were on line 79 too). 

So the articulated trolleybuses without work were scrapped. Most of them were cut into pieces, some of the cars were stored at Gvadányi út (street) for some time, but these trolleybuses also disappeared soon. By today's knowledge there is no remaining articulated trolleybus from the 400 series.

Articulated car 429 at terminus Garay utca.
Peter Makinson
Articulated trolleybus 402 at Állatkerti körút.
Trolleybus 452 on the summer of 1974,  at Dózsa György út.
405 és 411
Csuklós roncsa
Ákos Babiczky
Some trolleybuses at an estate of Gvadányi utca (street).
The artic cars were also used for a caravan in the building industry. This car was the first part of the ex-443 IK-60TCs trolleybus.

Rear lights:
Maybe it is not suprising, that the IK-60T's rear lights had an "evolution" too. Here is a bunch of them:
From the homepage of Zoltán László
The rear lights if T210 in around 1960. The rear lights are above the middle stripe.
The picture was taken at Népliget (Common Park) terminus of line 75. A loop of cable is recognisable in the background: this was the "small loop" which was used at the time, when inside the park was a race (the normal loop of the terminus was partly on the race-track).
The trolleybus 348 in Baross utca (street), at line 74 in the '70s. The lights are under the middle stripe.
From the number it is obvious that this was formally a traction trolleybus - the coupling device is noticable. However the pipe of the pressure air brake is disappeared.
József Jobbágy
József Jobbágy
A route 75 trolleybus 418 at the terminus Népliget.
The articulated trolleybuses were fitted with a joint signal lights at the rear, which was also used on IK-620 buses. The production of these joint lights were ceased later.
Car 421 crossing the underpass of the Hungária boulevard.
On many articulated trolleybuses the rear lights were exchanged - similarly to the IK-620 type - to individual lamps. The difference was, that these lamps were situated vertically on the trolleybuses.

Data of the renumbering

The renumbering to the 200 series in 1962:
T208 -> 201II*
T224 -> 211II
T237 -> 221II*
T253 -> 231II*
T268 -> 241II*
T308 -> 251II
T325 -> 261II
T353 -> 271II
T210 -> 202II*
T225 -> 212II*
T239 -> 222II*
T254 -> 232II*
T270 -> 242II
T311 -> 252II
T326 -> 262II
T212 -> 203II*
T226 -> 213II
T240 -> 223II*
T256 -> 233II
T274 -> 243II*
T312 -> 253II
T327 -> 263II
T213 -> 204II*
T228 -> 214II*
T242 -> 224II
T257 -> 234II
T279 -> 244II
T315 -> 254II
T328 -> 264II
T214 -> 205II*
T229 -> 215II*
T245 -> 225II*
T259 -> 235II
T292 -> 245II*
T316 -> 255II
T329 -> 265II
T215 -> 206II*
T230 -> 216II*
T246 -> 226II
T260 -> 236II
T294 -> 246II
T318 -> 256II
T330 -> 266II
T216 -> 207II*
T233 -> 217II
T247 -> 227II
T262 -> 237II
T300 -> 247II
T319 -> 257II
T331 -> 267II
T220 -> 208II*
T234 -> 218II
T248 -> 228II
T264 -> 238II*
T302 -> 248II*
T322 -> 258II
T332 -> 268II
T221 -> 209II*
T235 -> 219II
T249 -> 229II
T265 -> 239II
T304 -> 249II*
T323 -> 259II
T333 -> 269II
T222 -> 210II*
T236 -> 220II*
T251 -> 230II
T267 -> 240II*
T307 -> 250II
T324 -> 260II
T335 -> 270II
* - 28 cars were converted to articulated trolleybuses after 1962
The 259 is currently at Pongrác depot.

The renumbering to 300 series (traction trolleybuses) in 1962:
T200 -> 301II
T218 -> 311II
T250 -> 321II
T273 -> 331II
T287 -> 341II
T303 -> 351II
T201 -> 302II
T219 -> 312II
T252 -> 322II
T275 -> 332II
T288 -> 342II
T305 -> 352II
T202 -> 303II
T223 -> 313II
T255 -> 323II
T276 -> 333II
T289 -> 343II
T306 -> 353II
T203 -> 304II
T227 -> 314II
T258 -> 324II
T277 -> 334II
T291 -> 344II
T309 -> 354II
T204 -> 305II
T231 -> 315II
T261 -> 325II
T278 -> 335II
T295 -> 345II
T310 -> 355II
T206 -> 306II
T232 -> 316II
T263 -> 326II
T280 -> 336II
T296 -> 346II
T314 -> 356II
T207 -> 307II
T238 -> 317II
T266 -> 327II
T282 -> 337II
T297 -> 347II
T321 -> 357II
T209 -> 308II
T241 -> 318II
T269 -> 328II
T284 -> 338II
T298 -> 348II
T351 -> 358II
T211 -> 309II
T243 -> 319II
T271 -> 329II
T285 -> 339II
T299 -> 349II
T217 -> 310II
T244 -> 320II
T272 -> 330II
T286 -> 340II
T301 -> 350II

Renumberings with the building of articulated trolleybuses (400 series):
T283 -> T400
T341 -> 410
T349 -> 420
T214 -> 205II -> 430
T254 -> 232II -> 440
T267 -> 240II -> 450
T313 -> 401
T344 -> 411
T347 -> 421
T236 -> 220II -> 431
T264 -> 238II -> 441
T221 -> 209II -> 451
T317 -> 402
T350 -> 412
T356 -> 422
T304 -> 249II -> 432
T240 -> 223II -> 442
T228 -> 214II -> 452
T293 -> 403
T345 -> 413
T343 -> 423
T292 -> 245II -> 433
T239 -> 222II -> 443
T220 -> 208II -> 453
T334 -> 404
T346 -> 414
T290 -> 424
T230 -> 216II -> 434
T208 ->  201II -> 444
T337 -> 405
T339 -> 415
T205 -> 425
T268 -> 241II -> 435
T237 ->  221II -> 445
T352 -> 406
T342 -> 416
T274 -> 243II -> 426
T216 -> 207II -> 436
T229 ->  215II -> 446
T336 -> 407
T348 -> 417
T302 -> 248II -> 427
T222 -> 210II -> 437
T210 -> 202II -> 447
T338 -> 408
T355 -> 418
T213 ->  204II -> 428
T245 -> 225II -> 438
T215 -> 206II -> 448
T340 -> 409
T281 -> 419
T253 -> 231II -> 429
T225 -> 212II -> 439
T212 -> 203II -> 449
The trolleybus 400 was a unique one.

Every comment, observation and revision is welcomed!
Written by: Zoltán Ádám Németh